IP - An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier used in network communication. Network devices, such as a computer, a network printers and a router, all have a unique IP within their own network to enable you to print your document to your network, connect to a website, or play online games. An IP address is analogous to a phone number.
Subnet Mask - In simply terms, the subnet mask is used to identify if an IP address is in a particular network. When converted to binary notation, the subnet maske always begin with a series of 1s followed by a series of 0s.
Network ID - Identifies the network where a collection of related hosts (e.g., computers, servers and printers) are connected together..
Broadcast Address - A special IP address within a given network that enable a device to communicate to all devices on that network. All devices on a particular network listens for traffic destined for its own IP address and traffic send on this broadcast IP address.
Special IP Address Blocks
These special addresses are IPs that are reserved for network testing and troubleshooting and are not assigned to devices.
- 0.0.0.0/8 - Reserved for self-identification.
- 127.0.0.0/8 - Reserved for loopback, testing and troubleshooting.
- 169.254.0.0/16 - Reserved for link local.
- 188.8.131.52/24 - Reserved for 6to4 Relay Anycast.
- 198.18.0.0/15 - Reserved for network interconnect device benchmark testing.
- 184.108.40.206/8 - Reserved for mulitcast addresses, which is an address which has multiple destinations.
- 240.0.0.0/8 - Reserved for future use.
- 255.255.255.255 - This is the last IPv4 address and is represents 'all' host. It is reserved as a limited broadcast destination address.
Reserved Private IP Address Block
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP address space for private networks. These private IP addresses are typically used in local networks and cannot be accessed directly from a public network such as the Internet.
- 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix)
- 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix)
- 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix