Home > Resources > Articles > Common UNIX/Linus Commands

Common UNIX/Linus Commands

Environment Control  
cd d Change to directory d
mkdir d Create new directory d
rmdir d Remove directory d
mv f1 [f2...] d Move file f to directory d
mv d1 d2 Rename directory d1 as d2
passwd Change password
alias name1 name2 Create command alias (csh/tcsh)
alias name1="name2" Create command alias (ksh/bash)
unalias name1[na2...] Remove command alias na
ssh nd Login securely to remote node
exit End terminal session
setenv name v Set env var to value v (csh/tcsh)
export name="v" set environment variable to value v (ksh/bash)
Outpost, Communcation & Help  
lpr -P printer f   or lp -d printer f Output file f to line printer
script [f] Save terminal session to f
exit Stop saving terminal session
mailx username Send mail to user
man name Unix manual entry for name

Process Control  
CTRL/c * Interrupt processes
CTRL/s * Stop screen scrolling
CTRL/q * Resume screen output
sleep n Sleep for n seconds
jobs Print list of jobs
kill % Kill job n
ps Print process status stats
kill -9 n Remove process n
CTRL/z * Suspend current process
stop %n Suspend background job n
cmmd& Run cmmd in background
bg [%n] Resume background job n
fg [%n] Resume foreground job n
exit Exit from shell
Environment Status  
ls [d] [f...] List files in directory
ls -1 [f...] List files in detail
alias [name] Display command aliases
printenv [name] Print environment values
quota Display disk quota
date Print date & time
who List logged in users
whoami Display current user
finger [username] Output user information
chfn Change finger information
pwd Print working directory
history Display recent commands
! n Submit recent command n
File Manipulation  
vi [f] Vi fullscreen editor
emacs [f] Emacs fullscreen editor
ed [f] Text editor
wc f Line, word, & char count
cat f List contents of file
more f List file contents by screen
cat f1 f2 >f3 Concatenates f1 & f2 into f3
chmod mode f Change protection mode of f
cmp f1 f2 Compare two files
cp f1 f2 Copy file f1 into f2
sort f Alphabetically sort f
split [-n] f Split f into n-line pieces
mv f1 f2 Rename file f1 as f2
rm f Delete (remove) file f
grep 'ptn' f Outputs lines that match ptn
diff f1 f2 Lists file differences
head f Output beginning of f
tail f Output end of f